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All Proof-of-Work algorithms cannot block the appearance of ASIC miners, and can only delay for a moment. You can use the scrypt algorithm to block SHA-256 miners. You can use the x11 algorithm to block the miners of the scrypt algorithm, but as long as the coin price is high enough, it will definitely lead to the appearance of ASIC miners.

We all know that many new algorithms emerged to prevent ASIC professional miners. E.g:

**Scrypt**(coins using scrypt algorithm: litecoin, mincoin)**Equihash**(coins using equihash algorithm: Zcash, ZEN)**X11**(coins using X11 algorithm: Dash, centurion)**X16R**is a hashing algorithm, which is based on the classic X11. It uses sixteen chained hashing algorithms in an effort to thwart the move to ASIC mining. X16R algorithm has: BLAKE, BMW, Groestl, JH, Keccak, Skein, Luffa, Cubehash, Shavite, Simd, Echo, Hamsi, Fugue, Shabal, Whirlpool, Loselose, Djb2.

When the digital currency system needs to be upgraded, the miners need to upgrade on their respective devices so that the entire currency system can be updated.

With regard to system upgrades, the community usually does not form a unified opinion. The divergence of the agreement resulted in the split of many digital currencies. For example, BTC and BCH; ETH and ETC.

The X16R algorithm solves this problem by constantly disrupting the hashing algorithm’s chaining order.

The hash algorithm used by the x16R is the 15 validated x15 models, plus SHA512. However, the series order of 16 hashing algorithms is dynamically changed based on the hash value of the previous block.

This dynamic change of order does not make designing an ASIC impossible. However, this requires the ASIC to make more adaptations to additional inputs. These operations are easy for the CPU and GPU. The dynamic change of order can also prevent ASIC manufacturers from producing X16Rminers by simply extending the x11 and x15miners methods. The first X16R algorithm was a ravencoin posted in bitcointalk in January this year. Founder Tron Black is the core developer of Bitcoin. The coin is a block every 1 minute and the total amount is 21 billion. There is no ICO and no founder fee.

The cryptocurrency coins which work on the X16R algorithm include Stone Coin, Ravencoin, Proton Coin, Motion, Gravium, HTHCoin.

The X16R hashing algorithm consists of 16 hashing algorithms operating in chain fashion with the ordering dependent on the last 8 bytes (16 nibbles) of the hash of the previous block. The algorithms are as follows:

- Number = Hashing algorithm
- 0 = Blake
- 1 = BMW
- 2 = Groestl
- 3 = Jh
- 4 = Keccak
- 5 = Skein
- 6 = Luffa
- 7 = Cubehash
- 8 = Shavite
- 9 = Simd
- A = Echo
- B = Hamsi
- C = Fugue
- D = Shabal
- E = Whirlpool
- F = SHA-512

Example: Previous block hash: 0000000000000000007e8a29f052ac2870045ae3970270f97da00919b8e86287

The final 8 bytes: 0x7da00919b8e86287

Each hex digit (nibble) determines which algorithm to use next. cubehash -> shabal -> echo -> blake -> blake -> simd -> bmw -> simd -> hamsi -> shavite -> whirlpool -> shavite -> luffa -> groestl -> shavite -> cubehash

Tan Ji Sheng is an all-rounder technology expert with diverse experience revolving around strategizing product development roadmap and architecting solutions. He has helped clients plan and build applications, data visualisations, running artificial intelligent experiments, building the data pipeline and achieve cost optimization by making use of solutions on the cloud.